Methotrexate is given weekly as an intramuscular injection of 15 to 25 mg. Side effects are rare and include leukopenia and hypersensitivity interstitial pneumonitis. Hepatic fibrosis is the most severe potential sequela of long-term therapy. Patients with concomitant alcohol abuse and/or morbid obesity are more likely to develop hepatic fibrosis and therefore should not be treated with methotrexate. It is prudent to obtain a baseline chest radiograph and to monitor complete blood count, liver function and renal function every two weeks until the patient is receiving oral therapy, and every one to three months thereafter. Before methotrexate therapy is initiated, the risks of treatment and the possible need for a liver biopsy should be discussed with the patient.
Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via UK : /yellowcard, Ireland : HPRA Pharmacovigilance, Earlsfort Terrace, IRL – Dublin 2, Tel: + 353 1 6764971, Fax: + 353 1 6762517, Website: , Email: medsafety@ Malta : ADR Reporting, The Medicines Authority, Post-Licensing Directorate, 203 Level 3, Rue D'Argens, GZR-1368 Gzira. , @. By reporting side effects you can help provide more information on the safety of this medicine.
Before and during problem formulation, scientists prepare by learning the current
now-state of knowledge about a selected area of nature, including theories,
observations, and experimental techniques. Early in the career of a scientist,
as a student, typically most preparation comes by reading books and listening
to teachers, with supplementation by first-hand experience in observation and
interpretation. Later, when a scientist is actively involved in research,
typically there is a shift toward an increased reliance on the learning that
occurs during research, but some learning still occurs by reading and listening.
When a scientist becomes more intellectually mature, less knowledge is accepted
solely due to a trust in authority, because there is an increase in the ability
and willingness to think critically.
As suggested by Perkins & Salomon (1988), our use of knowledge can be viewed from two perspectives: backward-reaching and forward-reaching . Scientists can reach backward in time, to use now what they have learned in the past by reading, listening, and researching. Or they can focus on learning from current experience, because they are looking forward to potential uses of this knowledge in the future.
Because one scientist can interpret what another observes, sometimes an effective strategy for collecting data is to be a "theoretician" by reading (or hearing) about the experiments of others, for the purpose of gathering observations that can then be interpreted.