Adrenal sex steroid hormones

Catecholamines are produced in chromaffin cells in the medulla of the adrenal gland, from tyrosine , a non-essential amino acid derived from food or produced from phenylalanine in the liver. The enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase converts tyrosine to L-DOPA in the first step of catecholamine synthesis. L-DOPA is then converted to dopamine before it can be turned into noradrenaline. In the cytosol , noradrenaline is converted to epinephrine by the enzyme phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) and stored in granules. Glucocorticoids produced in the adrenal cortex stimulate the synthesis of catecholamines by increasing the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and PNMT. [4] [13]

The secretion of cortisol is mainly controlled by three inter-communicating regions of the body, the hypothalamus in the brain, the pituitary gland and the adrenal gland . This is called the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. When cortisol levels in the blood are low, a group of cells in a region of the brain called the hypothalamus releases corticotrophin-releasing hormone , which causes the pituitary gland to secrete another hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone , into the bloodstream. High levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone are detected in the adrenal glands and stimulate the secretion of cortisol, causing blood levels of cortisol to rise. As the cortisol levels rise, they start to block the release of corticotrophin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus and adrenocorticotropic hormone from the pituitary. As a result the adrenocorticotropic hormone levels start to drop, which then leads to a drop in cortisol levels. This is called a negative feedback loop.

Patients rarely require drains after adrenal surgery; however, if the surgeon thinks it is necessary, an abdominal drain will be placed. Drains are more often required after open adrenalectomy than after laparoscopic adrenalectomy. Drains are relatively easy to take care of, and the output is recorded on a daily basis. Once the output decreases to a certain level, the drain will be removed. Removal of the drain is not particularly painful. It is more of a strange sensation. In general, the drain will be removed several days after surgery.

There are also many synthetic sex steroids. Synthetic androgens are often referred to as anabolic steroids . Synthetic estrogens and progestins are used in methods of hormonal contraception . Ethinylestradiol is a semi-synthetic estrogen. Specific compounds that have partial agonist activity for steroid receptors , and therefore act in part like natural steroid hormones, are in use in medical conditions that require treatment with steroid in one cell type, but where systemic effects of the particular steroid in the entire organism are only desirable within certain limits. [6]

Adrenal sex steroid hormones

adrenal sex steroid hormones

There are also many synthetic sex steroids. Synthetic androgens are often referred to as anabolic steroids . Synthetic estrogens and progestins are used in methods of hormonal contraception . Ethinylestradiol is a semi-synthetic estrogen. Specific compounds that have partial agonist activity for steroid receptors , and therefore act in part like natural steroid hormones, are in use in medical conditions that require treatment with steroid in one cell type, but where systemic effects of the particular steroid in the entire organism are only desirable within certain limits. [6]

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