ICOs are a form of investment funding wherein startups offer new types of cryptocurrency in exchange for cash or preexisting cryptocoins like Bitcoin or Ethereum. They are currently unregulated in most of the world; Investopedia defines them as intended to “bypass the rigorous and regulated capital-raising process required by venture capitalists or banks.” A recent boom in ICOs has seen them surpass early stage venture capital funding in the amount of money raised in the US, CNBC wrote in August , raising worries of a looming bubble as the price of leading cryptocoins like Bitcoin has skyrocketed .
An assessment by the BlueCross BlueShield Association Technology Evaluation Center (BCBSA, 2014) stated: "The choice of bone material for interbody fusion in [anterior cervical discectomy and fusion] ACDF has important clinical implications. Allograft bone has several drawbacks, including a minute (albeit unproven) risk of infectious disease transmission; possible immunological reaction to the allograft; and possible limited commercial availability of appropriate graft material. In contrast, the use of autograft bone in ACDF has potentially substantial morbidities at the harvest site, generally the iliac crest. These include moderate-to-severe, sometimes prolonged pain; deep infection; adjacent nerve and artery damage; and increased risk of stress fracture. Although there may be slight differences between autograft and allograft sources in the postoperative rate of union, clinical studies have demonstrated similar rates of postoperative fusion (90%–100%) and satisfactory outcomes for single-level, anterior-plated ACDF using either bone source. Thus, the choice of graft material involves a trade-off between the risks specific to autograft harvest versus those specific to use of allograft material."
The readings of the BBC system indicated dysfunctional process, that is scores of 4,5 and 6 showed an encouraging result of 85% correspondence with known pathology. It is not possible for the BBC system to define these high scores as being due to any particular cause, such as malignancy, inflammatory processes, traumatic processes etc. This requires a thorough medical history, clinical examination and appropriate further conventional investigations. Therefore the BBC system is not a conventional diagnostic device, but it is a useful means of locating dysfunction and as a guide to treatment and possible further investigation in any clinical situation.