A spray of vanishing foam is another recent use of technology in football, which came to prominence at the 2014 Brazil World Cup. It's first use in international football was when it was trialed at the 2013 FIFA U-20 World Cup, 2013 FIFA U-17 World Cup and 2013 FIFA Club World Cup. The spray is a temporary foam applied by the referee to the field to provide a visual marker for use by both players and referees to indicate the minimum distance that members of the opposing team must remain from the ball during a free kick, as well as the spot from which the kick is taken.
In many new generations of high speed serial I/O standards, the protocol layer optimizes physical layer properties, such as optimizing equalization settings for accurate signal transmission to the receiver through long and noisy transmission mediums. This requires a PeRT3 - a new class of instrumentation that can perform standard receiver tests and also communicate to the transmitter in protocol language. The PeRT3 therefore ensures proper operation of integrated transmitter and receiver systems, optimizes test time, and minimizes equipment and setup complexity.