Side-effects of inhaled steroids

Corticosteroids have been used as drug treatment for some time. Lewis Sarett of Merck & Co. was the first to synthesize cortisone, using a complicated 36-step process that started with deoxycholic acid, which was extracted from ox bile . [43] The low efficiency of converting deoxycholic acid into cortisone led to a cost of US $200 per gram. Russell Marker , at Syntex , discovered a much cheaper and more convenient starting material, diosgenin from wild Mexican yams . His conversion of diosgenin into progesterone by a four-step process now known as Marker degradation was an important step in mass production of all steroidal hormones, including cortisone and chemicals used in hormonal contraception . [44] In 1952, . Peterson and . Murray of Upjohn developed a process that used Rhizopus mold to oxidize progesterone into a compound that was readily converted to cortisone. [45] The ability to cheaply synthesize large quantities of cortisone from the diosgenin in yams resulted in a rapid drop in price to US $6 per gram, falling to $ per gram by 1980. Percy Julian's research also aided progress in the field. [46] The exact nature of cortisone's anti-inflammatory action remained a mystery for years after, however, until the leukocyte adhesion cascade and the role of phospholipase A2 in the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes was fully understood in the early 1980s.

Afrezza is dried human insulin produced in a lab from recombinant DNA*. The powder is placed into carrier particles (called Technosphere particles) that are so small that once inhaled they can reach your deep lungs, which have the surface area of about half the size of a tennis court. That’s right. A tennis court. Afrezza is absorbed into my blood stream rapidly, peaks in about 12-15 minutes and is out of my system in about 30-45 minutes. It’s so quick that I almost always start eating before I take my insulin. Instead of fast-acting, you can consider Afrezza to be ultra rapid and because of that it more closely mimics the post-meal functions of a person without diabetes.

Side-effects of inhaled steroids

side-effects of inhaled steroids

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