Choking is the fourth most common cause of unintentional injury-related death in the US  . Many episodes are not reported because they are brief and resolve without seeking medical attention  . Among reported events, the majority of episodes (80%) occur among children younger than age 15, with fewer episodes (20%) among age 15 and older  . The death rate from choking is low at most ages but increases starting around age 74  . Choking due to a foreign object resulted in 162,000 deaths ( per 100,000) in 2013, compared to 140,000 deaths ( per 100,000) in 1990. 
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There has been no prior regular surveillance for adverse events following epidural steroid injections; however, infection is a known, although likely rare, risk that has been documented in the medical literature. Although CDC has received reports of illness in patients who have received the medications listed in the table above, including some patients who had evidence of meningeal inflammation, CDC and public health officials have no reports of laboratory-confirmed bacterial or fungal meningitis, spinal, or paraspinal infections caused by these products. The available epidemiological and laboratory data do not, at this time, support evidence of an outbreak of infections linked to usage of non-methylprednisolone NECC products.